Hosea, a prophet from the 8th century of Judah who may have began during the reign of Jeroboam II and extended to sometime prior to the fall of Samaria, was harshly critical of Israel’s monarchy. Hosea’s time period was a time of remarkable instability after the long and prosperous reign of Jeroboam II, in which six kings rules who came from five different families and four of the six were murdered by their successors. This is alluded to in Hosea 8:7 which says “All of them are as hot as an oven and devour their judges (i.e. rulers), all of their kings fall.” Hosea also openly rejects the divine backing of the monarchy by saying “they have enthroned kings but not by me.” Criticism of the kingship may have also stemmed from its repeated trust in varying alliances, seen as a lack of trust in Yahweh, as well as the breaking of oaths even with its suzerain as well as with Yahweh. Hosea also bears seems to be steeped in traditionas similar to D and E, both having northern associations. The inherent skepticism of kingship that is pervasive in some Deuteronomistic works may also be related.


Coogan, Old Testament

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